Understand referencing

Get started with our referencing guides. Find examples of how to quote and paraphrase in the text of your assignment and how to format reference lists.

Generative Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools

Check your assessment or course details to determine if you are permitted to use generative AI tools to complete your assessment. Further information is available on the Why Academic integrity matters web page.

When citing content produced by these tools follow the examples in the AI section of the referencing guide.

Using generative AI ethically and responsibly module

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The library offers referencing workshops throughout the year. If you have missed one or unable to attend you can watch our video.

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Understanding referencing

Four steps of referencing

Referencing is how you acknowledge the information sources used in your work and demonstrates your understanding of the topic. Accurate and consistent referencing is an important part of academic culture and shows that you are acting with academic integrity.

Step 1.

Choose a style

In some instances you can choose your referencing style, but mostly your course or school will dictate which style you should follow. It’s your responsibility to find out what referencing style you are required to use and to locate the correct style guide.

Step 2.

Identify the resource

You need to figure out exactly what you are referencing. Look closely to find features to help you determine the resource type for example book, book chapter, journal article, newspaper article, website or other type. The resource type will dictate what details you will need to record.

Step 3.

Collect information

Accurately record all the information about the resource you are referencing. You will need to note who, when, what and where. Be sure to consult your referencing style guide during this step. It will specify exactly what information you need.

Step 4.

Write your reference list

Once you have all the resource information it is now time to put it together in the correct order and format as per the rules of the style you are using. Once you have finished writing your reference list, take the time to proofread it.

Ask who, when, what and where





Academic integrity

Understand your academic integrity obligations and responsibilities to act in an honest and ethical manner.


Referencing information is provided as a guide only and is based on the official manual or other authoritative sources where available. You should confirm referencing requirements for your course and consult the manual directly for more information.

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