This guide will assist you in understanding how to reference for your assignment. It contains examples to help you format your in-text citations and reference list.

Vancouver is a numbered style, meaning in-text citations are represented by a number (1), (3), (5) or (2-4, 8) and used to acknowledge ideas of author(s) you have included in the body of your assignment. The details of these citations are then included in a reference list, organised numerically not alphabetically, at the end of your assignment.

Vancouver examples

Reference list


  • When more than six names listed, use the first six names followed by et al.
  • Capitalise only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initials
  • For materials on the Internet add the type of medium designator [Internet] following the title, and the URL is required.
  • For materials other than print books and print journals add the type of medium designator following the title for example: [dissertation], [master's thesis], [bibliography], [microfiche], [DVD]. Consult the official Citing Medicine NLM Style Guide for additional information on types of medium for the sources you are using.



As shown by Smith and Jones 5 .......

Newman (4) and Smith and Jones (5) claim......

Wood et al. [7] .....

Quote is stated "findings are contradictory for function".1(p23) is stated "findings are contradictory for function".(1 p23)

Ezzo [1 p23] stated that "findings are contradictory for function".


Book – electronic with DOI

Book – electronic with URL

Book – print

Book with editor, compiler, reviser, or translator

Book chapter



Journal or newspaper article

Journal article – electronic with DOI

Journal article – electronic with URL

Journal article – print

Systematic reviews

Newspaper article – electronic

Newspaper article – print

Report, conference, thesis

Government publication


Conference paper or poster

Conference proceedings

Thesis or dissertation – from a database

Thesis or dissertation – from an institutional repository

Thesis or dissertation – unpublished retrieved from a web site

Thesis or dissertation – print

Video, audio, music

Video stream – database

Video stream – YouTube or Vimeo

Video physical – DVD or Blu-ray

Audio stream or podcast

Image, table, data, statistics


Figure or table

Data set


Website, social media, software

Web page

Web document

Blog post

Social media

Legal, standard, unpublished

Legal case




Lecture notes

Personal correspondence

Style rules

No author

Translators, illustrators or other contributors

Sources citing other sources

Multiple references in one citation

Can't find it?

Consult the manual Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers for more information.

In-text citations

Acknowledge authors in your writing by inserting a reference number consistently as per one of these methods. Consult your course convenor on which method to use.

As shown by Smith and Jones 5 ...
Newman (4) and Smith and Jones (5) claim ...
Wood et al. [7] ...

When creating in-text citations:

  • give each new source the next consecutive reference number
  • use the unique reference number of a source for subsequent citations
  • include the pages number if you are directly quoting an author's words.

Quote example: Ezzo [1 p23] stated that "findings are contradictory for function".

Reference list

Place the reference list on a new page at the end of your assignment and centre the heading of "References".

In your reference list:

  • place references in a numerical list, in the order that they were cited in the your assignment
  • list all authors and when there are more than six authors, enter the first six author names followed by et al.
  • capitalise only the first word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initials.

Sample referencing list


Referencing information is provided as a guide only and is based on the official manual or other authoritative sources where available. Users are directed to confirm specific referencing requirements with their course convenor and to consult the manual directly for more information.

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