This guide will assist you in understanding how to reference for your assignment. It contains examples to help you format your notes and bibliography.

Chicago 17 Notes and Bibliography is a numbered style, meaning in-text citations are represented by superscript numerals like this1 and this,2 that correspond to numbered footnotes at the bottom of the page containing the citation details. All citations are then listed in an alphabetically ordered bibliography at the end of your assignment.

Chicago 17 Notes & Bibliography Examples

Authors Notes entries Bibliography list entry
First citation
1. Anna Simpson, Book Title ...
Subsequent citation
2. Simpson, Book Title, ...

Simpson, Anna. Book Title ...

First citation
1. Jean-Louis Cohen and Christian Huber, Book Title ...
Subsequent citation
2. Cohen and Hubert, Book Title ...

The lead author's name only is inverted:

Cohen, Jean-Louis, and Christian Huber. Book Title ...

First citation
1. Carlo Perrotta, Chris Bailey, and Claire Garside, "Article Title," Journal Title ...
Subsequent citation
2. Perrotta, Bailey, and Garside, "Shortened Article Title," ...

The lead author's name only is inverted:

Perrotta, Carlo, Chris Bailey, and Claire Garside. "Article Title." Journal Title ...

4 -10
First citation
List only the lead author followed by et al.
1. Arvin Farshad et al., "Article Title," Journal Title ...
Subsequent citation
2. Farshad et al., "Shortened Article Title," ...

List all the authors with only the lead author's name inverted:

Farshad, Arvin, Jose Espinosa, Benjamin Bird, Andrew West, Simon Watson, and Barry Lennox. "Article Title." Journal Title ...

First citation
List only the lead author followed by et al.
1. Robert Home et al., "Article Title," Journal Title ...
Subsequent citation
2. Home et al., "Shortened Article Title,"...

List up to 7 authors followed by et al. and only the lead author's name inverted:

Home, Robert, Olivia Lewis, Nicole Bauer, Andreas Fliessbach, David Frey, Stéphanie Lichtsteiner, Marco Moretti et al. "Article Title." Journal Title ...


Book – electronic

Book – print

Book chapter

Book with editor in place of author



Editions other than first


Journal article – electronic with DOI

Journal article – electronic with URL or Database Name instead of DOI

Journal article – print

Journal article - accepted for publication but not yet appeared

Journal article - not yet accepted, available as preprint version

Book review published in a journal

Newspaper article

Magazine article

Report, thesis, conference

Government publication


Conference paper

Thesis or dissertation

Video, audio, music, performance

Video stream – database

Video stream – YouTube or Vimeo

Video stream - Netflix, Foxtel, etc.

Video physical - DVD, Blu-ray, film

Broadcast media - TV, radio program

Audiobook, podcast via app

Audio physical – LP, CD, Tape

Live performance

Review - show or performance

Image, table, data, statistics

Image - Illustration, photo or table from a book, article, or webpage

Image - work of art

Image - map

Exhibition catalogue

Exhibition review


Data set

Website, social media, software

Web page

Website content - document

Website content - multimedia

Blog post

Social media content

Software, app or interactive media

Style rules

Inserting reference numbers

Multiple references in one citation

Multiple works by the same author published in the same year

Source citing another source

No author

No date

Page numbers

URLs and DOIs

Can't find it?

Consult the manual and authoritative web sites for more information.

In-text and Notes

Acknowledge authors in your writing using consecutive superscript reference numbers. These numbers correspond to the notes reference numbers.

In-text examples:
Guest1 states that .....
......"direct quote from another source."2
additionally Guest3–argues that....
Notes examples:

1. Chris Guest, Sharing the Water: One Hundred Years of River Murray Politics (Canberra: Murray-Darling Basin Authority, 2016), 98.

2. Deborah Littlejohn, "Disciplining the Graphic Design Discipline: The Role of External Engagement, Mediating Meaning, and Transparency as Catalysts for Change," Art, Design & Communication in Higher Education 16, no. 1 (April 2017): 39-41,

3. Guest, Sharing the Water, 151.

Block quote examples:
Gullifer and Tyson's4 research concludes evidently,
how important it is for... ... is not done in the haphazard or piecemeal manner reported by participants.
The research concludes evidently,
how important it is for institutions ... ... is not done in the haphazard or piecemeal manner reported by participants.4

Take note:

  • In the text of your assignment place the superscript number after any punctuation mark, except for the dash which it precedes.
  • In your notes provide a full note entry the first time a source is cited, then use the shortened form for subsequent notes.
  • In your notes separate citation elements with commas.

Block quote notes:

  • Block quotes are recommended for a hundred words or more and quoted material of more than a paragraph, even if very brief.
  • Block quotations are not enclosed in quotation marks, always start on a new line and are indented or set in smaller type of font from the text.
  • The in-text reference is given as part of the sentence before the quote or after the punctuation mark at the end of the quote.

View transcript

View transcript


Place the bibliography at the end of your assignment on a new page with the heading "Bibliography".

In your bibliography:

  • arrange entries alphabetically by lead author's last name or in some cases by title
  • list multiple works by the same author or group of authors alphabetically by title of article/chapter disregarding any leading AAn or The
  • place a full stop at the end of the entry even if the last element is a URL
  • invert only the lead author's name, for example: LastName, FirstName MiddleInitial - with additional authors’ names are written as FirstName, Middle Initial, LastName
  • use authors' names as they appear in the source, including middle initials if provided.
  • use an author's full name throughout if it also appears in full in other references
  • use authors' full name if they have a similar last names and initials as other authors.

Sample bibliography

Official manual

Consult the manual and authoritative web sites for more information.








Referencing information is provided as a guide only and is based on the official manual or other authoritative sources where available. You should confirm referencing requirements for your course and consult the manual directly for more information.

HIDDEN Style rules

Placement of reference numbers (superscripts) within the text

Citing a source in-text should follow a basic referencing principle which is to distinguish between ideas or words borrowed from others and those of your own.

Insert the reference number right after stating a borrowed idea or direct quotation, which is not necessarily at the end of a sentence. A hypothetical example:

This sentence shows two superscript numbers to indicate acknowledgement of an idea from one source,1 and of another from a different source.2 An exception to the rule of placing the reference number after a punctuation mark is the dash or hyphen: the superscript should be placed before the dash or hyphen, like this3—note that there is no space between the superscript and the dash. The superscripts then correspond to numbered footnotes at the bottom of the page or endnotes at the end of the entire text depending on which type of notes you are required to use.

Here's how to insert footnotes and endnotes in Word for Office 365, Word 2019/2016/2013/2010/2007.

General formatting rules for notes entries
  • There are two types of notes: footnotes which appear at the bottom of the page, and endnotes which appear at the end of an article (but is not the same as the bibliography list). Confirm with your course convenor whether they require footnotes or endnotes.
  • Provide a full note entry the first time a source is cited; subsequently, use the shortened form. This guide shows the first full entry and the shortened note for most of the examples by source.
  • Chicago 17 discourages the use of ibid. Use the shortened note even when citing the same immediately preceding source.
  • Notice that citation elements in note entries are separated by commas, whereas in bibliography list entries, elements are separated by full stops.
Bibliography list general rules
  • The bibliography list starts on a new page at the end of the essay, with the heading Bibliography or Works Cited or References. Check with your course convenor the preferred heading.
  • In written assignments it is customary to list only the sources that are cited in-text but if you are unsure please confirm with your course convenor.
  • A bibliography list entry ends with a period or full stop even if the last element is a URL.
  • Sorting: Entries are arranged alphabetically by lead author's last name. For multiple works by the same author or group of authors, list them all consecutively, sorted alphabetically by title of article/chapter disregarding any leading A, An or The.
Citation elements
  • Author
    • Only the lead author's name is inverted, i.e. the last name first, followed by a comma, a space, then the first name and any middle initials. Additional authors' names are in natural order.
    • Use authors' names as they appear in the source, including middle initials if provided. Exceptions:
      • If an author's name has initials but also appear as full names in other references, use full names throughout.
      • For different authors with similar last names and initials, do provide full names.
  • Titles: Some works are contained within a larger work (e.g. an article within a journal or a chapter within an edited book) - enclose the smaller work's title in double quotation marks, and italicise the larger work's title.
  • Editions other than first: Include the edition number (not superscripted) or description after the title, with an intervening comma.
    • In the notes:
    1. Andrew Hugill, The Digital Musician, 3rd ed., ...
    • In the bibliography:

      Hugill Andrew. The Digital Musician, 3rd ed.  New York: ...

  • Year: Refers primarily to year of publication. Alternative dates, where applicable, are shown in the format (e.g. Accessed date).
  • City: Include the abbreviated name of the state (if in the USA) or country if the city may be confused with another city of the same name.
  • Notice that citation elements in a bibliography list entries are mostly separated by periods/full stops, and by commas in the notes entries.
Page numbers
  • Include page numbers to lead readers to the cited information in the source, whether you paraphrased or directly quoted in-text.
  • View the full text PDF of journal articles to see page numbers as they would appear in the journal.
  • Shorter webpages typically have no page numbers in which case you can omit this element.
  • For longer electronic works with no page numbers, e.g. some ebooks, it would be appropriate but not required to cite chapter number, section heading or similar locators for the reader's convenience.
  • A source cited as a whole work (e.g. a reference to a novel as a whole) does not require citation of specific pages.
  • For page ranges above 101, abbreviate the higher page number to the changed digits only, e.g. 519-21,  not 519-521.
URLs and DOIs
  • Use URLs based on the DOI if provided in the source, e.g.
  • If the DOI is given in this format: doi:10.1057/978-1-137-48302-7, drop "doi:" and append the numbers to "" as shown above.
  • If the source has no DOI, provide a URL that leads your reader either directly to the cited item or to some information about it. Note:
    • Unless approved by your course convenor, do not use a URL that contains within it as only those with Griffith logins can access the material.
    • Some journal articles are open access and freely available on the web, in which case it will have a direct URL you can use, or you can copy/paste the URL from the browser's address bar.
  • If no DOI or stable URL is provided, state the name of the database where you found the source.
  • Word processors usually underline and turn a URL text blue to indicate an active hyperlink. You can deactivate URLs in Word, but check with and follow your teacher's preferences on whether hyperlinks should be active or not.

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