This guide will assist you in understanding how to reference for your assignment. It contains examples to help you format your notes and bibliography.
Chicago 17 Notes and Bibliography is a numbered style, meaning in-text citations are represented by superscript numerals like this1 and this,2 that correspond to numbered footnotes at the bottom of the page containing the citation details. All citations are then listed in an alphabetically ordered bibliography at the end of your assignment.
Chicago 17 Notes & Bibliography Examples
|Authors||Notes entries||Bibliography list entry|
Simpson, Anna. Book Title ...
The lead author's name only is inverted:
Cohen, Jean-Louis, and Christian Huber. Book Title ...
The lead author's name only is inverted:
Perrotta, Carlo, Chris Bailey, and Claire Garside. "Article Title." Journal Title ...
List all the authors with only the lead author's name inverted:
Farshad, Arvin, Jose Espinosa, Benjamin Bird, Andrew West, Simon Watson, and Barry Lennox. "Article Title." Journal Title ...
List up to 7 authors followed by et al. and only the lead author's name inverted:
Home, Robert, Olivia Lewis, Nicole Bauer, Andreas Fliessbach, David Frey, Stéphanie Lichtsteiner, Marco Moretti et al. "Article Title." Journal Title ...
Bibliography list entry
- The Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed. discourages citing a source from a secondary source ("quoted in..."). As author of your paper, you are expected to have read all sources cited in your work. Read and cite the original work as much as possible.
- If an original source is not available (e.g. no longer in print or cannot be obtained by regular means), both the original and the secondary source must be mentioned in the note entry and listed in the bibliography, as shown in the examples below.
- Format the citations as appropriate for the source type (book, journal article, report, etc.).
Bibliography list entry
Bibliography list entry
In-text and Notes
Acknowledge authors in your writing using consecutive superscript reference numbers. These numbers correspond to the notes reference numbers.
- Guest1 states that .....
- ......"direct quote from another source."2
- additionally Guest3–argues that....
1. Chris Guest, Sharing the Water: One Hundred Years of River Murray Politics (Canberra: Murray-Darling Basin Authority, 2016), 98.
2. Deborah Littlejohn, "Disciplining the Graphic Design Discipline: The Role of External Engagement, Mediating Meaning, and Transparency as Catalysts for Change," Art, Design & Communication in Higher Education 16, no. 1 (April 2017): 39-41, https://doi.org/10.1386/adch.16.1.33_1.
3. Guest, Sharing the Water, 151.
- In the text of your assignment place the superscript number after any punctuation mark, except for the dash which it precedes.
- In your notes provide a full note entry the first time a source is cited, then use the shortened form for subsequent notes.
- In your notes separate citation elements with commas.
Place the bibliography at the end of your assignment on a new page with the heading of "Bibliography", "Works Cited" or "References".
In your bibliography:
- list only sources cited in-text
- arrange entries alphabetically by lead author's last name or in some cases by title
- list multiple works by the same author or group of authors alphabetically by title of article/chapter disregarding any leading A, An or The
- place a full stop at the end of the entry even if the last element is a URL
- invert only the lead author's name, for example: LastName, FirstName MiddleInitial - with additional authors’ names are written as FirstName, Middle Initial, LastName
- use authors' names as they appear in the source, including middle initials if provided.
- use an author's full name throughout if it also appears in full in other references
- use authors' full name if they have a similar last names and initials as other authors.
Architects Accreditation Council of Australia. "Architectural Profession in Australia – a Snapshot." Architects Accreditation Council of Australia. Accessed July 28, 2019. https://www.aaca.org.au/architectural-profession-in-australia-a-snapshot/.
De Ferrari M., Felipe, producer. Interview with Adrien Verschuere 1/ Baukunst. Brussels, January 1, 2019. Video, 46:15. OnArchitecture.
Gray, Carole, and Julian Malins. Visualizing Research: A Guide to the Research Process in Art and Design. Aldershot, England: Routledge, 2016. EBSCOhost eBook Collection.
Guest, Chris. Sharing the Water: One Hundred Years of River Murray Politics. Canberra: Murray-Darling Basin Authority, 2016.
Henley, Ben. "2,000 Years of Records Show It's Getting Hotter, Faster." The Conversation. July 25, 2019. https://theconversation.com/2-000-years-of-records-show-its-getting-hotter-faster-120882.
Hugill Andrew. The Digital Musician. 3rd ed. New York: Routledge, 2019. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203704219.
Kennedy, Brianna L. "Deduction, Induction, and Abduction." In The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Data Collection, edited by Uwe Flick, 1-22. London: SAGE Publications, 2018. https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781526416070.
Littlejohn, Deborah. "Disciplining the Graphic Design Discipline: The Role of External Engagement, Mediating Meaning, and Transparency as Catalysts for Change." Art, Design & Communication in Higher Education 16, no. 1 (April 2017): 33-51. https://doi.org/ 10.1386/adch.16.1.33_1.
Lydiate, Henry. “Afterlife of Photographs.” Art Monthly, May 2019. ProQuest.
Papaioannou, Spyros. "Mapping the 'Non-representational': Derrida and Artaud's Metaphysics of Presence in Performance Practice." Liminalities 14, no. 4 (2018): 1-19. ProQuest.
Simpson, Anna. The Innovation-Friendly Organization: How to Cultivate New Ideas and Embrace the Change They Bring. London: Palgrave MacMillan Limited, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-48302-7.
Smith, Danielle. "Mechanisms of Making: Simon Starling." Art and Australia 51, 4 (Winter 2014): 519-21.
Soegaard, Mads. ”Hick’s Law: Making the Choice Easier for Users.” Interaction Design Foundation. August 18, 2019. https://www.interaction-design.org/literature/article/hick-s-law-making-the-choice-easier-for-users.
Zachary, Cassidy, and April Callahan. "Exhibiting Heavenly Bodies: An Interview with Fashion Conservator Sarah Scaturro, Part I," Dressed: The History of Fashion (podcast) in HowStuffWorks platform, September 25, 2018. Audio, 1:03:40. https://www.dressedpodcast.com/podcasts/exhibiting-heavenly-bodies-an-interview-with-fashion-conservator-sarah-scaturro-part-i.htm.
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HIDDEN Style rules
Placement of reference numbers (superscripts) within the text
Citing a source in-text should follow a basic referencing principle which is to distinguish between ideas or words borrowed from others and those of your own.
Insert the reference number right after stating a borrowed idea or direct quotation, which is not necessarily at the end of a sentence. A hypothetical example:
This sentence shows two superscript numbers to indicate acknowledgement of an idea from one source,1 and of another from a different source.2 An exception to the rule of placing the reference number after a punctuation mark is the dash or hyphen: the superscript should be placed before the dash or hyphen, like this3—note that there is no space between the superscript and the dash. The superscripts then correspond to numbered footnotes at the bottom of the page or endnotes at the end of the entire text depending on which type of notes you are required to use.
General formatting rules for notes entries
- There are two types of notes: footnotes which appear at the bottom of the page, and endnotes which appear at the end of an article (but is not the same as the bibliography list). Confirm with your course convenor whether they require footnotes or endnotes.
- Provide a full note entry the first time a source is cited; subsequently, use the shortened form. This guide shows the first full entry and the shortened note for most of the examples by source.
- Chicago 17 discourages the use of ibid. Use the shortened note even when citing the same immediately preceding source.
- Notice that citation elements in note entries are separated by commas, whereas in bibliography list entries, elements are separated by full stops.
Bibliography list general rules
- The bibliography list starts on a new page at the end of the essay, with the heading Bibliography or Works Cited or References. Check with your course convenor the preferred heading.
- In written assignments it is customary to list only the sources that are cited in-text but if you are unsure please confirm with your course convenor.
- A bibliography list entry ends with a period or full stop even if the last element is a URL.
- Sorting: Entries are arranged alphabetically by lead author's last name. For multiple works by the same author or group of authors, list them all consecutively, sorted alphabetically by title of article/chapter disregarding any leading A, An or The.
- Only the lead author's name is inverted, i.e. the last name first, followed by a comma, a space, then the first name and any middle initials. Additional authors' names are in natural order.
- Use authors' names as they appear in the source, including middle initials if provided. Exceptions:
- If an author's name has initials but also appear as full names in other references, use full names throughout.
- For different authors with similar last names and initials, do provide full names.
- Titles: Some works are contained within a larger work (e.g. an article within a journal or a chapter within an edited book) - enclose the smaller work's title in double quotation marks, and italicise the larger work's title.
- Editions other than first: Include the edition number (not superscripted) or description after the title, with an intervening comma.
- In the notes:
- Andrew Hugill, The Digital Musician, 3rd ed., ...
- In the bibliography:
Hugill Andrew. The Digital Musician, 3rd ed. New York: ...
- Year: Refers primarily to year of publication. Alternative dates, where applicable, are shown in the format (e.g. Accessed date).
- City: Include the abbreviated name of the state (if in the USA) or country if the city may be confused with another city of the same name.
- Notice that citation elements in a bibliography list entries are mostly separated by periods/full stops, and by commas in the notes entries.
- Include page numbers to lead readers to the cited information in the source, whether you paraphrased or directly quoted in-text.
- View the full-text PDF of journal articles to see page numbers as they would appear in the journal.
- Shorter webpages typically have no page numbers in which case you can omit this element.
- For longer electronic works with no page numbers, e.g. some ebooks, it would be appropriate but not required to cite chapter number, section heading or similar locators for the reader's convenience.
- A source cited as a whole work (e.g. a reference to a novel as a whole) does not require citation of specific pages.
- For page ranges above 101, abbreviate the higher page number to the changed digits only, e.g. 519-21, not 519-521.
URLs and DOIs
- Use URLs based on the DOI if provided in the source, e.g. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-48302-7
- If the DOI is given in this format: doi:10.1057/978-1-137-48302-7, drop "doi:" and append the numbers to "https:doi.org/" as shown above.
- If the source has no DOI, provide a URL that leads your reader either directly to the cited item or to some information about it. Note:
- Unless approved by your course convenor, do not use a URL that contains libraryproxy.griffith.edu.au within it as only those with Griffith logins can access the material.
- Some journal articles are open access and freely available on the web, in which case it will have a direct URL you can use, or you can copy/paste the URL from the browser's address bar.
- If no DOI or stable URL is provided, state the name of the database where you found the source.
- Word processors usually underline and turn a URL text blue to indicate an active hyperlink. You can deactivate URLs in Word, but check with and follow your teacher's preferences on whether hyperlinks should be active or not.