This guide will assist you in understanding how to reference for your assignment. It contains examples to help you format your footnotes and bibliography.

The Australian Guide to Legal Citation 4th edition (AGLC 4) is a numbered style, meaning in-text citations are represented by a superscript number 1, 3, 8 and the details of the citation are included in a footnote in the body of your assignment. Where a bibliography is required, it should list all the citations used and other sources that were relied upon, organised alphabetically in sections, and placed at the end of your assignment.

AGLC 4 Examples


Parties’ names

Popular case names

The Crown

Attorney General or Director of Public Prosecutions

Report series


'Ex parte'

Unreported judgements

Legislative material

Act of parliament


Explanatory memo



Subordinate legislation


Orders and rulings

Non-government entity

Practice directions

International material


State-State arbitration

Investor-State arbitration

International criminal case

Foreign domestic material

UK case – reported

UK case – unreported

UK legislation

Canadian case

Canadian legislation

US case

US legislation

Chinese case – reported

Chinese case – unreported

Chinese legislation


Book – print or electronic

Book chapter

Book with editor

Legal encyclopedia


Journal, newspaper, looseleaf

Journal article – print or electronic

Newspaper article – electronic

Newspaper article – print

Looseleaf publication

Website, speech, conference

Video stream – YouTube or Vimeo

Internet material


Conference paper

Thesis or dissertation

Style rules


Pinpoint references

Subsequent references


Can't find it?

Consult the manual and authoritative web sites for more information.


Acknowledge sources and authors in your writing using consecutive superscript reference numbers. These numbers correspond to the footnote reference numbers.

In-text examples:

In regards to the German civil code, Zimmermann and Du Plessis state general enrichment was 'the most outstanding feature of the German law of unjustified enrichment'.1
The legislation2 indicates that.....
The Court held in Alati v Kruger3 that...
Footnote examples:

1 Reinhard Zimmermann and Jacques Du Plessis, ‘Basic Features of the German Law of Unjustified Enrichment’ [1994] 14 Restitution Law Review  21.
2 Weapons Act 1990 (Qld) s 51(1).
3 Alati v Kruger (1955) 94 CLR 216.

Take note:

  • insert footnote numbers as superscripts 2, 9, 11, after any relevant punctuation
  • add a full stop to the end of each footnote entry
  • using ‘Ibid’ where a footnote relates to the preceding reference
  • using ‘Cross References’ to refer to a previously used footnote which does not immediately precede the current one. Replace ‘n’ with the footnote number of the reference.


Where a bibliography is required it lists all sources that were relied upon, not just those cited in-text or in footnotes. Place the bibliography on a new page at the end of your assignment and centre the heading of "Bibliography".

In your bibliography:

  • divide citations into sections with the following headings: A Articles/Books/Report, B Cases, C Legislation, D Treaties, E Other
  • omit sections or include other sections as deemed necessary
  • invert the first author's name in the bibliography for example: Surname, FirstName -- Dehm, Sara
  • list citations under each section heading alphabetically by surname by the first listed author
  • sort authors with the same last name alphabetically according to their first names
  • sort multiple works by the one author in alphabetical order by title
  • do not place a full stop at the end of the citation
  • do not include pinpoint references in the bibliography.

For more information consult manual rule 1.13.

Sample Bibliography

Official manual

Consult the official manual and library law guide for more information.







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