This guide will assist you in understanding how to reference for your assignment. It contains examples to help you format your in-text citations and reference list.

Australian Government Publishing Service (AGPS) Harvard is an author-date style, meaning in-text citations (author year) are used to acknowledge the author(s) of ideas and quotes you have included in the body of your assignment. The details of these citations are then included in a reference list, organised alphabetically, at the end of your assignment.

AGPS Harvard Examples



(Author Year)

(Author Year, Page)


Bohm and Chaudhri (2000) discusses how teachers help students with their individual interpretation of understanding.


Teachers 'suggest ways of looking at the new material' (Fetherston 2007, p. 61)


  • If there is no date, use n.d.
  • Place a direct quote in single quotation marks.
  • Include a page number when quoting directly. If no page numbers exist then include a paragraph number (para. #).
  • Use p. for a single page number (author year p. 52) and pp. for a page range (author year pp. 16-20.)
Author Reference list In-text citation
1 Fetherston, T 2007, ... (Fetherston 2007)     
Bohm, A & Chaudhri, DP 2000, ... (Bohm & Chaudhri 2000)       
3Geis, K, Jhally, S & Rideout, R 2013, ...(Geis, Jhally & Rideout 2013)
4+ Bell, M, Bush, D, Nicholson, P, O'Brien, D & Tran, T 2002, ...(Bell et al. 2002, p. 27)        
No author Closing the gap in a generation 2008, ... (Closing the gap in a generation 2008)
Corporate Cancer Council 2010, ... (Cancer Council 2010, p.5)


Book – electronic with DOI

Book – electronic with URL

Book – electronic from a platform or with a particular format

Book – print

Book chapter

Book with editor, compiler, reviser or translator




Journal article – electronic with DOI

Journal article – electronic with URL

Journal article – print

Journal article – electronic from a database

Newspaper article – electronic

Newspaper article – print

Report, thesis, conference

Government publication


Conference paper

Conference presentation (unpublished)

Thesis or dissertation

Video, audio, music, performance

Video stream – database

Video stream – YouTube or Vimeo

Video physical – DVD or Blu-ray

Audio stream or podcast

Image, table, data, statistics

Image, figure or table


Data set

Website, social media, software

Web page

Web document

Blog post

Style rules

Sources citing other sources

Multiple references in one citation

Multiple works by the same author

Multiple works by the same author published in the same year

Can't find it?

Consult the manual and authoritative web sites for more information.

Note that a number formats and examples have been amended for digital resources.

In-text citations

Acknowledge authors in your writing using the following formats:

...was concluded (Author Year).
Author (Year) discusses how...

Example: Teachers help each student with their individual interpretation of understanding (Fetherston 2007).

Author (Year, Page) states that...
...(Author Year, Page)

Example: Fetherston (2007, p. 61) claims that teachers 'suggest ways of looking at the new material'.

Reference list

Place the reference list on a new page at the end of your assignment and centre the heading of "References".

In your reference list:

  • order references alphabetically A-Z by surname of the first author of the work
  • list works with no author under the first significant word of the title
  • list multiple works by the same author from oldest to newest by date
  • add a lower case letter immediately after the year for multiple works by the same author in the same year, for example (2000a, 2000b, 2000c).

Sample referencing list

Official manual

Consult the manual and authoritative web sites for more information.

Note that a number formats and examples have been amended for digital resources.









Referencing information is provided as a guide only and is based on the official manual or other authoritative sources where available. Users are directed to confirm specific referencing requirements with their course convenor and to consult the manual directly for more information.

Study help

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