This guide will assist you in understanding how to reference for your assignment. It contains examples to help you format your in-text citations and reference list.

The Chicago 17 Author-Date is an author-date style, meaning in-text citations (author year) are used to acknowledge the author(s) of ideas and quotes you have included in the body of your assignment. The details of these citations are then included in a reference list, organised alphabetically, at the end of your assignment.

Chicago 17 Author-Date examples



1 author

(AuthorLastName Year, Page number or Timestamp)

2 authors

(Author1LastName and Author2LastName Year, Page number or Timestamp)

3 authors

(Author1LastName, Author2LastName, and Author3LastName Year, Page number or Timestamp)

4+ authors

(Author1LastName et al. Year, Page number or Timestamp)


…paraphrased sentence (Smith 1999, 52).

Smith (1999, 52) stated ...

(Perrotta, Bailey, and Garside 2018, 563)

(Farshad et al. 2019, 771)

Authors Reference list In-text citation

Guest, Chris. Title....

(Guest 2016, 156)


Cohen, Jean-Louis, and Christian Hubert. Year. Title....

(Cohen and Hubert 2015, 252)


Perrotta, Carlo, Chris Bailey, and Claire Garside. Year. Title....

(Perrotta, Bailey, and Garside 2018, 563)

4 - 10

Farshad, Arvin, Jose Espinosa, Benjamin Bird, Andrew West, Simon Watson, and Barry Lennox. Year. Title....

(Farshad et al. 2019, 771)


List up to seven authors, followed by et al.

Home, Robert, Olivia Lewis, Nicole Bauer, Andreas Fliessbach, David Frey, Stéphanie Lichtsteiner, Marco Moretti et al. Year. Title....

(Home et al. 2019, 192)


Book – electronic

Book – print

Book chapter

Book with editor



Audiobook – via app

Editions other than first


Journal article – electronic with DOI

Journal article – electronic with URL

Journal article – print

Newspaper article – electronic

Newspaper article – print

Book review in journal

Unpublished – Journal article accepted for publication but not yet appeared

Report, thesis, conference

Government publication


Conference paper

Conference proceedings

Thesis or dissertation – from a database

Thesis or dissertation – from an institutional repository

Thesis or dissertation – print

Video, audio, music, performance

Video stream – database

Video stream – YouTube or Vimeo

Video physical – DVD or Blu-ray


Podcast via app

Audio physical – LP, CD, Tape

Live performance

Review - performing arts

Image, table, data, statistics

Image - illustration, table, chart from a book, journal article, webpage, etc

Image - painting, photograph, work of art

Image - map


Data set

Review - art exhibition

Work of art viewed in person

Website, social media, software

Web page

Web document

Blog post

Software, app or interactive media

Style rules

Multiple references in one citation

Multiple works by the same author published in the same year

No author

No date

No page number

Source citing another source

Can't find it?

Consult the manual and authoritative web sites for more information.

In-text citations

Acknowledge authors in your writing using the following formats:

...was concluded (Author Year, Page).
Author (Year, Page) discusses how...


Teachers help each student with their individual interpretation of understanding (Fetherston 2007, 61).
Australia's higher education sector is known for providing students with training that is relevant to their future profession (Bohm and Chaudri 2000, 52).
Author (Year, Page) states that...
...(Author Year, Page)


Fetherston claims that teachers "suggest ways of looking at the new material" (Fetherston 2007, 61).
Bohm and Chaudri (2000, 52) claim that Australia has a "reputation for delivering industry-focused education and training."

Block quote examples:

Gullifer and Tyson's (2010, 478) research concludes evidently,
how important it is for institutions... not done in the haphazard or piecemeal manner reported by participants.
The research concludes evidently,
how important it is for institutions... not done in the haphazard or piecemeal manner reported by participants. (Gullifer and Tyson 2010, 478)

Take note:

  • provide a page number for direct quotes and paraphrased text
  • use the chapter, section or paragraph number ('chap.' or 'sec.' or 'para.') if there is no page number then omit this detail
  • abbreviate page number if the range is above 101, for example: 519-21, not 519-521
  • include a time stamp in hh:mm:ss format instead of a page number for audiovisual material (video, podcasts, DVDs etc.), for example: "...quoted sentence" (Kavutskiy 2019, 4:24).
  • block quotes are recommended for a hundred words or more and quoted material of more than a paragraph, even if very brief.
  • block quotations are not enclosed in quotation marks, always start on a new line and are indented or set in smaller type of font from the text.
  • for block quotes, the in-text reference is given in parentheses as part of the sentence before the quote or after the punctuation mark at the end of the quote.

View transcript

View transcript

Reference list

Place the reference list at the end of your assignment on a new page with the heading of "References".

In your reference list:

  • order references alphabetically by the last name of the author(s) or organisation name
  • list works with no author under the first significant word of the title
  • write authors' names in the order they listed on the title page of the source, initials can be used for first names
  • invert the first author's name, for example: LastName, FirstName and subsequent author names in this order, for example: FirstName LastName
  • indent the second and subsequent lines of each reference
  • write titles and subtitles in headline case, where the first letter of each major word is capitalised
  • separate each element of a reference with a full stop.

Sample referencing list

Official manual

Consult the manual and authoritative web sites for more information.








Referencing information is provided as a guide only and is based on the official manual or other authoritative sources where available. You should confirm referencing requirements for your course and consult the manual directly for more information.

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