This guide will assist you in understanding how to reference for your assignment. It contains examples to help you format your in-text citations and reference list.

The American Psychological Association 7th edition (APA 7) is an author-date style, meaning in-text citations (author, year) are used to acknowledge the author(s) of ideas and quotes you have included in the body of your assignment. The details of these citations are then included in a reference list, organised alphabetically, at the end of your assignment.

APA 7 examples



(Author, Year)

Author (Year) stated...


Australia's higher education sector is known for providing students with training that is relevant to their future profession (Bohm, 2000).


Bohm and Chaudhri (2010) claim that Australia has a "reputation for delivering industry-focused education and training" (p.171).

Quick author summary

Authors Reference list Parenthetical in-text citation Narrative in-text citation
1 Fetherston, T. (2007). Title... (Fetherston, 2007) Fetherston (2007)
2 Crossman, J., & Mills, C. (2011). Title... (Crossman & Mills, 2011) Crossman and Mills (2011)
3+ Carter, R., Brown, S., Murphy, C., Harris, M., & Griffiths, R. (2009). Title...

(Carter et al., 2020)

(Carter, Brown, Murphy, et al., 2020)

(Carter, Brown, Murphy, Harris, et al., 2020)

Carter et al. (2020) states...

Carter, Brown, Murphy, et al. (2020) state...

Carter, Brown, Murphy, Harris, et al. (2020) state....

Notes on et al.

  • For a work with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation, including the first citation, unless doing so would create ambiguity.
  • To avoid ambiguity in citations with similar authors, include as many authors as necessary before abbreviating the remaining authors with et al.

Author, editor, translator

One author

Two authors

Three to twenty authors

Twenty-one or more authors

Corporate/government authors



No author


Quote, cite, missing details

Quoting from sources

Citing parts of a source - page number, paragraph, time stamp, section

Sources citing other sources

Multiple works by the same author published in the same year

Multiple references in one citation

No author

No date

No title

Book, chapter, encyclopedia

Book – electronic

Book – print

Book chapter

Book with editor

Book review



Journal, newspaper article

Journal article – electronic

Journal article – advance online publication and in press

Journal article – print

Newspaper article

News webpage

Report, government, thesis

Government publication


Conference paper

Thesis or dissertation – from a database

Thesis or dissertation – from a university or institutional repository

Video, audio, music, scripts

Video stream – database

Video stream – YouTube or Vimeo

Video physical – DVD or Blu-ray

Audio stream or podcast

Audio physical – LP, CD, Tape

Music scores

Music scores - unpublished

Music encyclopedias and dictionaries


Data, statistics, standard





Website, social media, software

Web page

Web document

Blog post

Social media

Computer software

Figure, table, lecture notes, other




Lecture notes

Personal correspondence

Unpublished material

Archive material

Can't find it?

Consult the official manual and style blog for more information.

In-text citations

Acknowledge authors using the following formats:

Author (Year) expresses the idea....
....paraphrased idea sentence (Author, Year)
....paraphrased idea sentence (Author & Author, Year).


Fetherston (2007) expresses the idea...
Teachers help each student with their individual interpretation of understanding (Fetherston, 2007).
Australia's higher education sector is known for providing students with training that is relevant to their future profession (Bohm & Chaudhri, 2000).
Author (Year) "text of direct quote" (Page).
"text of direct quote" (Author & Author, Year, Page).


Fetherston (2007) claims that teachers "suggest ways of looking at the new material" (p. 61).
Australia has a "reputation for delivering industry-focused education and training" (Bohm & Chaudhri, 2010, p. 171).


  • When acknowledging multiple authors in the text of a sentence precede the final name with the word "and"
  • When acknowledging multiple authors in the parentheses and reference list precede the final name with an ampersand "&"

View transcript

View transcript

Reference list

Place the reference list on a new page at the end of your assignment and centre the heading of "References".

In your reference list:

  • sort references alphabetically (A-Z) by surname of the first author of the work, if no author sort under the first significant word of the title
  • use a hanging indent the second line and subsequent lines of a reference are indented tabbed space or 1.27cm
  • double space references throughout the list
  • write titles using sentence case - capitalise the first word of the title, the first word after a colon or dash, and proper names.
  • italicise titles of books, journals, films, videos, and web sites but not book chapters and journal article titles.
  • write journal titles and corporate authors' names out in full, no abbreviations

Sample referencing list

Official manual and style blog

Consult the official manual and style blog for more information.








Referencing information is provided as a guide only and is based on the official manual or other authoritative sources where available. Users are directed to confirm specific referencing requirements with their course convenor and to consult the manual directly for more information.

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