This guide will assist you in understanding how to reference for your assignment. It contains examples to help you format your in-text citations and reference list.

The American Psychological Association 7th edition (APA 7) is an author-date style, meaning in-text citations (author, year) are used to acknowledge the author(s) of ideas and quotes you have included in the body of your assignment. The details of these citations are then included in a reference list, organised alphabetically, at the end of your assignment.

APA 7 examples



(Author, Year)

Author stated (Year) ...


Australia's higher education sector is known for providing students with training that is relevant to their future profession (Bohm, 2000).


Bohm and Chaudhri (2010) claim that Australia has a "reputation for delivering industry-focused education and training" (p.171).

Authors Reference list Parenthetical in-text citation Narrative in-text citation
1 Fetherston, T. (2007). Title... (Fetherston, 2007) Fetherston (2007)
2 Crossman, J., & Mills, C. (2011). Title... (Crossman & Mills, 2011) Crossman and Mills (2011)
3+ Colagiuri, R., Girgis, S., Eigenmann, C., Gomez, M., & Griffiths, R. (2009). Title... (Colagiuri et al., 2009) Colagiuri et al. (2009)


Book – electronic

Book – print

Book chapter

Book with editor

Book review




Journal article – electronic

Journal article – advance online publication and in press

Journal article – print

Newspaper article

News webpage

Report, thesis, conference

Government publication


Conference paper

Thesis or dissertation – from a database

Thesis or dissertation – from a university or institutional repository

Video, audio, music, performance

Video stream – database

Video stream – YouTube or Vimeo

Video physical – DVD or Blu-ray

Audio stream or podcast

Audio physical – LP, CD, Tape

Music scores

Music scores - unpublished

Music encyclopedias and dictionaries


Image, data, statistics, review




Cochrane database systematic review

Website, social media, software

Web page

Web document

Blog post

Social media

Computer software

Legal, standard, unpublished






Lecture notes

Personal correspondence

Archive material

Unpublished material

Style rules





No author

No date

Sources citing other sources

Multiple works by the same author published in the same year

Multiple references in one citation

Abbreviations for references

Can't find it?

Consult the manual and authoritative web sites for more information.

In-text citations

Acknowledge authors using the following formats:

Author (Year) expresses the idea....
....paraphrased idea sentence (Author, Year)
....paraphrased idea sentence (Author & Author, Year).


Fetherston (2007) expresses the idea...
Teachers help each student with their individual interpretation of understanding (Fetherston, 2007).
Australia's higher education sector is known for providing students with training that is relevant to their future profession (Bohm & Chaudhri, 2000).
Author (Year) "text of direct quote" (Page).
"text of direct quote" (Author & Author, Year, Page).


Fetherston (2007) claims that teachers "suggest ways of looking at the new material" (p. 61).
Australia has a "reputation for delivering industry-focused education and training" (Bohm & Chaudhri, 2010, p. 171).


  • When acknowledging multiple authors in the text of a sentence precede the final name with the word "and"
  • When acknowledging multiple authors in the parentheses and reference list precede the final name with an ampersand "&"

View transcript

View transcript

Reference list

Place the reference list on a new page at the end of your assignment and centre the heading of "References".

In your reference list:

  • sort references alphabetically (A-Z) by surname of the first author of the work, if no author sort under the first significant word of the title
  • use a hanging indent the second line and subsequent lines of a reference are indented tabbed space or 1.27cm
  • double space references throughout the list
  • write titles using sentence case - capitalise the first word of the title, the first word after a colon or dash, and proper names.
  • italicise titles of books, journals, films, videos, and web sites but not book chapters and journal article titles.
  • write journal titles and corporate authors' names out in full, no abbreviations

Sample referencing list


Referencing information is provided as a guide only and is based on the official manual or other authoritative sources where available. Users are directed to confirm specific referencing requirements with their course convenor and to consult the manual directly for more information.

How to print or save a copy of this guide







Study help

Smarthinking is a free 24/7 online tutoring service available to all Griffith students seeking advice on improving their writing skills. Students can submit their assignment draft for review and receive a response in 24 hours. Smarthinking and Study Smart are your first step​s​ to improving your writing and study skills.


Get specialist advice

Library specialists can assist you with improving your academic writing, study skills, referencing, and research needs. If needed, we can arrange a time to talk to you by phone, online, or face-to-face. This includes referrals with a learning adviser for an Academic Integrity breach.

Get help from the library


We are here to help!

You can find answers on Ask Us 24/7.

Or you can ask our friendly staff about Library products and services. Find us in the libraries or contact us by phone, email or chat.


Ask the Library

(07) 3735 5555 Brisbane

(07) 5552 5555 Gold Coast

Common questions