This guide will assist you in understanding how to reference for your assignment. It contains examples to help you format your in-text citations and reference list.

The Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) referencing style is a numbered style, meaning in-text citations are represented by a number [1], [3], [5] or [1] - [5] and used to acknowledge ideas of author(s) you have included in the body of your assignment. The details of these citations are then included in a reference list, organised numerically not alphabetically, at the end of your assignment.

IEEE examples

In-text

Examples

As shown by [5]...

Smith [4] and Brown and Jones [5]...

Wood et al. [7]...

.... [8].

As mentioned earlier [2], [4]–[7], [9]... (cites source 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 9)

Notes

  • Citations are numbered in the order they appear in the source.
  • The source retains the same number as the first citation.
  • The number appears on the line, in square brackets, inside the punctuation [#].
  • Use et al when three or more names are given for a reference cited in the text.

Book

Book – electronic

Book – print

Book chapter

Article

Journal article – electronic with DOI

Journal article – electronic with URL

Journal article – print

Newspaper article – electronic

Newspaper article – print

Report, conference, thesis

Report

Conference paper

Conference proceedings – electronic

Conference proceedings – print

Thesis or dissertation – electronic

Thesis or dissertation – print

Figure, table, data, statistics

Figures, tables, equations

Statistics

Data set – with DOI

Data set – with URL

Website, video, audio, software

Web page

Video stream

Audio stream or podcast

Software

Standard, patent, unpublished

Standard

Patent

Lecture notes

Personal correspondence

Unpublished material

Can't find it?

Consult the manual and authoritative web sites for more information.

In-Text Citations

Acknowledge authors in your writing by:

  • including a number in square brackets, inside the punctuation [#]
  • numbering the citations in order they appear in your assignment
  • ensuring the source retains the same number as the first citation
  • using et al. when three or more names are given for a reference cited in your assignment.
Examples:
As shown by [5]...
Smith [4] and Brown and Jones [5]...
Wood et al. [7]...
.... [8].
As mentioned earlier [2], [4]–[7], [9]... (cites source 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 9)

Reference list

Place the reference list on a new page at the end of your assignment and centre the heading of "References".

In your reference list:

  • list references from [1] to [x]
  • indent references and ensure the numbers appear in their own column
  • follow the reference formats that can be found in the examples, or view the IEEE Reference Guide for more detailed information.

Sample referencing list

Official manual

Consult the manual and authoritative web sites for more information.

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Safari

Edge

iPhone

Android

Disclaimer

Referencing information is provided as a guide only and is based on the official manual or other authoritative sources where available. Users are directed to confirm specific referencing requirements with their course convenor and to consult the manual directly for more information.

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