This guide will assist you in understanding how to reference for your assignment. It contains examples to help you format your in-text citations and reference list.
The American Psychological Association 6th edition (APA 6) is an author-date style, meaning in-text citations (author, year) are used to acknowledge the author(s) of ideas and quotes you have included in the body of your assignment. The details of these citations are then included in a reference list, organised alphabetically, at the end of your assignment.
APA 6 examples
Title of Diagram/Map/Chart/Plot/Photo
Figure #. Brief description of the contents of the figure. Adapted from "Title: Subtitle", by A. A. Author, & B. B. Author, Year, Source Title, Page (https://xxxx). Copyright Year by the Publisher name.
Map of Australia
Figure 1. This map highlights where the state of Queensland is within Australia. From "Maps of Australia", 2008, (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Maps_of_Australia). In the public domain.
Acknowledge authors using the following formats:
- Author (Year) expresses the idea....
- ....paraphrased idea sentence (Author, Year)
- ....paraphrased idea sentence (Author & Author, Year).
- Fetherston (2007) expresses the idea...
- Teachers help each student with their individual interpretation of understanding (Fetherston, 2007).
- Australia's higher education sector is known for providing students with training that is relevant to their future profession (Bohm & Chaudhri, 2000).
- Author (Year) "text of direct quote" (Page).
- "text of direct quote" (Author & Author, Year, Page).
- Fetherston (2007) claims that teachers "suggest ways of looking at the new material" (p. 61).
- Australia has a "reputation for delivering industry-focused education and training" (Bohm & Chaudhri, 2010, p. 171).
- When acknowledging multiple authors in the text of a sentence precede the final name with the word "and"
- When acknowledging multiple authors in the parentheses and reference list precede the final name with an ampersand "&"
Abu-Taieh, E. M. O., & El-Sheikh, A. A. (2010). Handbook of research on discrete event simulation environments: Technologies and applications. doi:10.4018/978-1-60566-774-4
Allard,T. (2005). Closed circuit television in prison (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from: Griffith Research Online http://hdl.handle.net/10072/366645
Apples for best teachers. (2007, October 26). The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 14
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2010). Research and experimental development, higher education organisations, Australia, 2010 (Catalogue No. 8111.0). Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/8111.0
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2019, July). Childhood education and care, Australia (No. 4402.0). Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au
Australian Council for Educational Research. (2010). Doing more for learning: Enhancing engagement and outcomes. Retrieved from http://ausse.acer.edu.au/images/docs/AUSSE_2009_Student_Engagement_Report.pdf
Bellofolletti. (2009, April 8). Ghost caught on surveillance camera [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =Dq1ms2JhYBI&feature=related
Britten, B. (Composer), Piper, M. (Librettist), & Matthews, C. (Piano reduction). (1975). Death in Venice: An opera in two acts, Op.88 [Vocal score]. London, England: Faber Music.
Cairns, G. & Wright, G. (2018). Scenario thinking: Preparing your organization for the future in an unpredictable world [Springerlink version]. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/
Climate change. (2017). In Encyclopedia of scientific principles. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.libraryproxy.griffith.edu.au/lib/griffith/detail.action?docID=4386003
Day, R. (2006). Two principles of perception revealed by geometrical illusions. Australian Journal of Psychology, 58(3),123-128.
Ferguson, J. (2009). Stretching therapy: For sport and manual therapies (J. Everson, Trans.). Edinburgh, Scotland: Churchill Livingstone.
Ferguson, P. M. (in press). The secrets of managing your money. Journal of Financial Planning. Retrieved from http://www.fpanet.org/journal.aspx
Fox, G., & Manley, M. (2009). Hardness methods for testing maize kernels. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57(25), 5647-5657. doi:10.1021/jf900623w
Goodier, J. (Ed.). (2016). Oxford concise colour medical dictionary (6th ed., pp. 34-37). doi 10.1108/RR-10-2015-0240
Gore, I. L. (2017). A Novel treatment for malignant mesothelioma by use of cell penetrating peptide based kinase inhibition, (Master's thesis, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia).
Green, D. B., & DeSilva, A. (2015, June). The toxicity levels of household chemicals. Paper presented at the National Symposium on Air Pollution, University of Southern California, California.
Griffith University Library. (2019, August 6). First trimester student [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/griffithlibrary?lang=en
Lawler, R. (2012). Summer of the seventeenth doll [Playscript] (Rev ed.). Retrieved from https://ebookcentral-proquest-com
Ma, Z. (2018). Searching on massive graphs and regularizing deep learning (unpublished doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10072/385875
Mathis, T. (2015, August 12). What is human systems integration? [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://blog.apabooks.org/2015/08/12/what-is-human-systems-integration/
Mazur, M.E. (2011). Encyclopedia of religion and film. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.libraryproxy.griffith.edu.au/lib/griffith/detail.action?docID=664527
Page, S. (2010). Hanukkah blessings [Recorded by Barenaked Ladies]. On Barenaked for the holidays [CD]. London, England: Raisin Records.
Queensland Health. (2015). The Hunter Review: Review of the Department of Health's structure, governance arrangements and high level organisational capability. Retrieved from Queensland Health website https://www.health.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/439012/hunter-review-report.pdf
Queensland Health (2017). Consumer Perceptions of care survey outcomes [Dataset]. Retrieved from https://www.data.qld.gov.au/dataset/your-experience-of-service-queensland-health-mental-health-services/resource.
Quinnan. T. (1997). Adult students "at-risk": Culture bias in higher education (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://www.netlibrary.com
Rissian, L. C. (Producer). (2012, May 4). Twelve parsecs [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://itunes.apple.com
Robbins, T. (2009). Learning by text or context? [Review of the book The social life of information, by L.S. Lebin]. The Quarterly review of Science, 86(4), 357-373.
Royal Institute of British Architects. (n.d.). Shaping the future: Careers in architecture. Retrieved from http://ww.careersinarchitecture.net/
Shakespeare-Finch, J. & Adams, K. (2017). Growth and meaning from negotiating the complex issues. In E. Altmaier (Ed.), Constructive Negotiations: Theory, Research, and Practice (pp. 117-131). doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-803015-8.00008-54
Sykes, J. (2018, January 4). The good the bad and the incomprehensible. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved from http://www.smh.com.au/
Smith, J. D., Jones, R. L., Harper, S. G., Harris, K., Thompson, L. C., Nelson, G. A., ...Sampson, D. (Eds.). (2003). Teaching for quality learning at university: What the student does (2nd ed.). Buckingham, England: Society for Research in Higher Education & Open University Press.
Smith, L. R. (2009). Organisational decision making assessment (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Proquest Digital Dissertations. (AAT NR78543)
Smith, S. (Producer). (2007). English language teaching [DVD]. Plainview, NY: Sunburst Media.
Standards Australia. (2013). Gas installations. Part 1, general installations (AS/NZS 5601.1:2013). Sydney, NSW: Author.
Statistics New Zealand (2016). Percentage of New Zealand population who have never worked, June 2016 quarter [Table]. Retrieved from http://www.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/income-and-work/employment_and _unemployment/people-never-worked.aspx
Steff, Y. (2018). Courtesy of Christy Rilling Studio 2018 [Image]. Retrieved from https://www.vogue.com/article/spring-2018-trend-bike-shorts
Tchaikovsky, P. (ca. 1920). Serenade for string orchestra, Op. 48 [Score]. Leipzig, Germany: Breitkopf & Hartel. Retrieved from http://imslp.org/wiki/Serenade_for_String_Orchestra,_Op.48_(Tchaikovsky,_Pyotr). (Original work published 1880).
Vessenes, P. M. (2003). The secrets of managing your time. Journal of Financial Planning,16(1), 30-32. Retrieved from http://www.fpanet.org/journal/
Video Education Australasia (Producer). (2013). A first step [Documentary]. Retrieved from Screen Australia database.
Wagner, G. S. (1996). Surfing with Boolean! Where are the challengers? In J. Smith & W. Phillips (Eds.) Electronic dream? Virtual nightmare the reality for libraries. VALA Biennial Conference Proceedings (pp. 97-108). Melbourne: VALA.
Watson, J. (2012). Human caring science: A theory of nursing (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Check your skills
APA 6 has many rules to follow, check your skills by working through the following interactive questions.
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