"Nah you're cut off, mate": An Analysis of Face Threat Minimisation Strategies Used in the Australian Liquor Industry
At the time of writing this paper, Evelyn Ansell had just commenced a Bachelor of Languages and Linguistics, after discontinuing study in International Relations. She has a long background in the hospitality industry and a keen interest in observing communicative behaviour.
In the context of the Australian Liquor Industry, there is a legal requirement that staff ‘cut off’ or refuse service to unduly intoxicated persons. Using the concept of ‘face’ and ‘face work’ as described by Brown and Levinson (1987), the cut off scenario (from staff perspective) was analysed.
This paper investigates whether experienced staff (consciously or unconsciously) form and use redressive strategies in order to minimise face threat in these situations. To do this, responses to a three part survey were elicited from 122 participants. The participants were grouped by experience and responses were compared.
It was expected that Group 2 (experienced) would demonstrate more instances of redressive action (face threat minimisation) overall than Group 1 (non-experienced), and this was indeed found to be the case. Additionally, this study found that the type of redressive action preferred by each group differed.
Putting the Contact Hypothesis into Practice - Ingrouping the outgroup - a case study
Greg Collins is a third year student in the Bachelor of Languages and Linguistics, majoring in Spanish and Linguistics at Griffith’s Gold Coast campus. His primary areas of interest are second language acquisition and discourse analysis.
This paper analyses the dialogues between the six participants in Season 1 of the SBS reality television programme, Go Back To Where You Came From, specifically focusing on their use of the terms ‘refugee’, ‘asylum seeker’ and ‘boat people’, as well as other terms in the corpus considered to be ‘otherising’, or ‘outgrouping’. The results show a distinct change in the terminology used to refer to unexpected arrivals, progressing from the first episode to the third episode, with a marked decrease in ‘outgrouping comments’ and a marked increase in ‘ingrouping comments’. In the analysis of this program an apparent relationship emerged between the conditions for intergroup contact situations, hypothesised by Allport (1954) as being necessary to promote positive intergroup attitudes and reduce prejudice, and the stages of the journey that the participants are guided through. In this study, it was hypothesised that the creators of the programme have applied the principles of the Contact Hypothesis, in order to structure and stage the interactions witnessed. The results of this ‘social experiment’ seem to support Allport’s (1954) contact hypothesis’ claim that under the right conditions, prejudices can be reduced.
Negative Face in the Workplace: A Comparison of Chinese and Australian English Request Strategies
James Kelly is UK-born, but has spent his adult years mostly in Australia, and partially in China. He is studying a Bachelor of Languages and Linguistics, majoring in Mandarin. He plans to develop a lifelong personal and professional relationship with the PRC and Greater China.
We live in an ever more integrated world, which is now quite widely referred to as a ‘global village’. Australia is not only no exception, but is rather one of the most multicultural societies on the planet. Over the past few decades there has been a progressive multilateral relationship with Asia along both domestic and international lines. Of particular importance in each respect is Asia’s rising star: China. In recent years, steady immigration from the PRC has resulted in large numbers of Chinese making a new home in Australia. Subsequently, they are becoming an established part of Australia’s social fabric; possessing a strong presence in tertiary institutions and, increasingly, the workforce. Therefore, this research considers growing Chinese integration into the workforce an important issue to address. It examines request acts made within an Australian-based intercultural communication context. The scope is confined to hypothetical, Australian workplace settings. Specifically, it examines English language request strategies made by both Australian Native English-language speakers and Native Chinese-language speakers. The research rationale investigates the hypothesis that while making requests, native Chinese language-speakers make more face-threatening acts to ‘negative face’ than do Australian native English speakers. The hypothesis is tested via written, open dialogue questionnaires comprised of three Australian workplace situations. The research found that indirect strategies were the preferred choice between the two groups. However, Chinese participants were far more likely to use direct strategies when making requests of those with lower social position than themselves. This difference is linked to the cultural backgrounds of each group, and therefore has implications for intercultural communication within a local, workplace context.
Attitudes Towards Americanisation and Americanisms Amongst the Youth of Australia
Jordie Krautz is a second year student in the Bachelor of Languages and Linguistics at Griffith University in Brisbane. In spite of this he still hopes to live a full and happy life.
The purpose of this study is to explore the phenomenon of Americanisation in Australia and in particular to ascertain in an empirical way the attitudes that young people hold towards it. Through first-hand experience in Australia and analysis of the relevant literature it can be seen that American popular culture and mass media have Australia firmly in their grip. Data was gathered by means of two separate surveys, one conducted online, the other in person. The first survey consisted of 20 questions, ranging from respondents’ opinions as to whether or not they believed Americanisation had affected them, to questions on lexical choices between Australian, American, or British options. The second survey, carried out in person, examined whether labels attached to various US and Australian television programmes affected the choices of respondents, even when the labels were switched and both programmes were unknown to the respondent. It was found that young people overwhelmingly said they preferred entertainment products from the US market, but that they valued a unique linguistic and cultural Australian identity, and identified more closely with Australian English than the American alternative. It is hoped that this study will provide a further insight into the tastes and preferences of university-age Australians regarding popular entertainment, and provide a contrasting analysis for future studies regarding the youth of other countries.
Gender representation in the discursive practices of martial artists in an on-line asynchronous environment
Amanda Moore is a third year student in the Bachelor of Languages and Linguistics at Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia. Her interests lie in the area of language and gender and intercultural communication, with particular regard to language use in the Martial Arts environment.
The concept of performance in the construction of identity is not new and one of the most fundamental aspects is the performance of gender. Whether we choose to fulfil traditional gender roles or embrace an alternative path, the choice to exhibit certain masculine or feminine traits lies with the individual. Previous research has shown however, that this is not always the case. The aim of this essay was to analyse both the performance of gender, and the gendered discursive practices of martial artists as members of an on-line martial arts forum, and compare this to previous research in on-line gender representation, gender in sport, and more specifically, gender representation in martial arts. Four threads were analysed from an on-line martial arts forum including posts by both males and females. Topics were started by both genders and covered a range of themes including general information, weapons training and two discussions specifically dealing with women in martial arts. Overall the data showed a much higher prevalence of males. Gendered linguistic features appeared to be constrained by the environment. Responses reflected the nature of the topic question or statement, with no noticeable difference between males and females
'What beautiful eyes you have' - Cross-gender compliment provisions in romantic settings
Elizabeth Moss is a recent Bachelor of Communication graduate with majors in Linguistics and Creative Writing/Literature. She has an interest in languages, cultures and intercultural communication and enjoys gaining first hand experience of these through travel.
This research essay explores the provision of compliments across genders, with a particular focus on the different types of compliments offered by males and females in the context of romance and dating. Existing literature has identified four broad types of compliments – those relating to appearance, ability, personality and possessions. These compliment areas are employed in the analysis of data gathered for this essay from Australian reality television programs The Bachelor and The Bachelorette. In past studies, results have indicated that males more frequently engage in compliment provision to female recipients than the reverse. In addition, past research has concluded that the most frequent compliment types for participants of both genders are those concerned with appearance and ability. Findings in this research essay deviate from these results – females were more likely to offer compliments to males and the utterances analysed from participants of both genders demonstrated a far higher frequency of personality type compliments than the results reflected in previous studies.