Dr Louise Porter is a Senior Lecturer in the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Griffith University, Australia, and member of the Griffith Criminology Institute. Her research applies social psychological and criminological perspectives to behaviour in policing and offending contexts. Her current research on policing focuses on police misconduct and police use of force. She has worked with law enforcement agencies both in Australia and overseas on a range of projects for more than a decade, holding previous academic appointments at the University of Liverpool and University of Birmingham in the UK, and Senior Research Fellow within the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Policing and Security at Griffith University. She has authored over 50 refereed journal articles and scholarly book chapters. She is co-author of Police Integrity Management in Australia (CRC Press, 2012) and co-edited a recent Special Issue of the European Journal of Policing Studies on changes in policing to improve service delivery. She is a member of the editorial boards of Policing & Society; International Journal of Law, Crime & Justice; and Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research; and is Director of Postgraduate Studies in the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Griffith University.


Phone: 07 555 27041

Email: l.porter@griffith.edu.au


  • Doctor of Philosophy
    The University of Liverpool, 2004
  • Master of Investigative Psychology
    The University of Liverpool, 1999
  • Bachelor (Honours) of Combined Science (Psychology)
    The University of Leicester, 1997

Member of the editorial board for Policing & Society

Member of the editorial board for International Journal of Law, Crime & Justice

Member of the editorial board for Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research


Porter, L.E., Prenzler, T. (2012). Police Integrity Management in Australia: Global Lessons For Combating Police Misconduct. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press-Taylor and Francis. http://www.crcpress.com/product/isbn/9781439895986

Book Chapters

  1. Porter, L. E. & Prenzler, T. (Forthcoming). Organisational and cultural dimensions of ethical attitudes: Exploring gender differences in the Australian context. In S. Kutnjak Ivkovich & M. Haberfeld (Eds.), Exploring Police Integrity. New York: Springer.
  2. Porter, L.E. (2016). Police Professional Standards Units and External Oversight Agencies: Can there be Productive Collaboration? In T. Prenzler & G. den Heyer (Eds.) Civilian oversight of police: Advancing accountability in law enforcement. Boca Raton: CRC Press – Taylor & Francis.pp229-249.
  3. Porter, L.E. & Prenzler, T. (2016). Complainants’ views of police complaints systems: The Gap between Aspiration and Experience. In T. Prenzler & G. den Heyer (Eds.) Civilian oversight of police: Advancing accountability in law enforcement. Boca Raton: CRC Press – Taylor & Francis.pp73-93.
  4. Prenzler, T. & Porter, L.E. (2016). Improving Police Behaviour through Innovative Responses to Complaints. In M. Rowe & S. Lister (Eds.) Accountability of Policing. London: Routledge. Pp.49-68.
  5. Porter, L.E. Prenzler, T. & Hine, K. (2015). Police Integrity in Australia. In S. Kutnjak Ivkovic & M. Haberfeld (Eds.), Measuring Police Integrity Across the World: Studies from Established Democracies and Countries in Transition. New York: Springer-Verlag. pp.67-96.
  6. Porter, L.E., (2013). Leadership and Role-Taking in Multiple Perpetrator Rape. In J. Woodhams & M. Horvath (Eds.) Multiple Perpetrator Rape: A Multidisciplinary Response to an International Problem. Oxon: Routledge. Pp160-181.
  7. Porter, L.E. & Prenzler, T. (2012). Corruption Prevention and Complaint Management. In T. Prenzler (Ed.) Policing and Security in Practice: Solutions and Achievements. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan.
  8. Porter, L.E. (2005).  Policing the Police: theoretical and practical contributions of psychologists to understanding and preventing corruption.  In L.J. Alison (Ed.) A Forensic Psychologist’s Casebook: Psychological Profiling and Criminal Investigation. Collumpton: Willan. p143-169.

Encyclopaedia/handbook chapters

  1. Porter, L.E. (Forthcoming). Police corruption and misconduct. In R.D. Morgan (Ed.) SAGE Encyclopedia of Criminal Psychology. SAGE.
  2. Taylor, P.J., Snook, B., Bennell, C. & Porter, L.E. (2014). Investigative Psychology. In B. Cutler & P. Zapf (Eds.), APA Handbook of Forensic Psychology. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
  3. Porter, L.E. (2010). Robbery. In J. Brown & L. Campbell (Eds.) The Cambridge Handbook of Forensic Psychology. Cambridge University Press.

Peer-Reviewed Articles

  1. McCarthy, M., Porter, L.E., Townsley, M., Alpert, G. P. (2019). The effect of community-oriented policing on police use of force: does community matter? Policing: An International Journal. https://doi.org/10.1108/PIJPSM-10-2018-0148
  2. Porter, L.E., Ready, J. & Alpert, G.A. (2018). Officer involved shootings: The effect of delay and repeated questioning on officers’ recall of stressful events. Journal of Experimental Criminology. DOI: 10.1007/s11292-018-9348-0
  3. Hine, K.A., Porter, L.E., Westera, N.J., Alpert, G., Allen, A. (2018). Exploring police use of force decision-making and impairments using a naturalistic decision making approach. Criminal Justice & Behavior. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854818789726
  4. McCarthy, M., Porter, L.E., Townsley, M. Alpert, G. (2018). Influence of community characteristics on serious police use of force events in an Australian policing jurisdiction: A test of minority threat, social disorganisation and ecological contamination theories. Policing and Society. DOI: 10.1080/10439463.2018.1493109.
  5. Hine, K.A., Porter, L.E., Westera, N.J., Alpert, G., Allen, A. (2018). What were they thinking? Factors influencing police recruits’ decisions about force. Policing and Society: An International Journal of Research and Policy. https://doi.org/10.1080/10439463.2018.1432612
  6. Porter, L.E. & Alpert, G.A. (2017). Understanding Police Recruits' Attitudes and Beliefs about the Public: An Australian Example. Police Quarterly, 20(4), 449-480. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098611117723567
  7. Fildes, A., Murphy, K. & Porter, L. (2017): Police officer procedural justice self-assessments: do they change across recruit training and operational experience?, Policing and Society, DOI: 10.1080/10439463.2017.1290089
  8. Porter, L.E. & Prenzler, T. (2017). Police officer gender and excessive force complaints: an Australian study. Policing & Society, 27(8), 865-883. DOI: 10.1080/10439463.2015.1114616
  9. Hine, K., Porter, L., Westera, N., & Alpert, G. (2016). The understated ugly side of police-citizen encounters: situation, suspect, officer, decision-making, and force predictors of officer injuries.  Policing and Society, 28(6), 665-683. doi:  http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10439463.2016.1251430
  10. Hine, K., Porter, L. E., Westera, N. & Alpert, G. (2016). Too much or too little?  Individual and situational predictors of police force relative to suspect resistance. Policing & Society, 28(5), 587-604.
  11. Cawthray, T. Prenzler, T. Porter, L.E. & Alpert, G. (2016). Reducing Public Complaints and Use of Force: The Portland Police Bureau Experience. Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice,2(4), 260-273.
  12. Porter, L.E. & Prenzler, T. (2016). The code of silence and ethical perceptions: Exploring police officer unwillingness to report misconduct. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 39(2), 370-386.
  13. Porter, L.E. & Graycar, A. (2016). Hotspots of Corruption: Applying a Problem-Oriented Approach to Preventing Corruption in the Public Sector. Security Journal, 29(3), 423-441.
  14. Gerard, F.J., Porter, L.E. & Brown, K. (2016). Offender and offence characteristics of school shooting incidents. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 13(1), 22-38. DOI:10.1002/jip.1439.
  15. Bond, C.E.W., Murphy, K. & Porter, L.E. (2015). Procedural justice in policing: the first phase of an Australian longitudinal study of officer attitudes and intentions. Crime, Law and Social Change, 64,229–245. DOI: 10.1007/s10611-015-9587-1
  16. McCarthy, J. & Porter, L.E. (2015). Prescription fraud: A comparison of pharmacists' and laypersons' perceptions of suspicious prescription presentation behaviour. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, 43(1), 50-67.
  17. Vogel, L., Porter, L.E. & Kebbell, M. (2014). The Role of Women in Political & Revolutionary Conflict. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 37(1), 91-114
  18. Cawthray, T., Prenzler, T. & Porter, L.E. (2013). Updating International Law Enforcement Ethics: International Codes of Conduct. Criminal Justice Ethics, 32(3), 187-209.
  19. Porter, L.E. (2013). Indigenous deaths associated with police contact in Australia: Event stages and lessons for prevention. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 46(2) 178–199.
  20. Porter, L.E. (2013). Beyond ‘oversight’: A problem-oriented approach to police reform. Police Practice and Research. An International Journal. Special Issue: Police Oversight, 14(2): 169-181.
  21. Prenzler, T., Mihinjac, M. & Porter, L.E. (2013). Reconciling stakeholder interests in police complaints and discipline systems.Police Practice and Research. An International Journal. Special Issue: Police Oversight, 14(2): 155-168.
  22. Prenzler, T., Porter, L.E. & Alpert, G.P. (2013). Reducing Police Use of Force: Case Studies and Prospects. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18(2), 343-356.
  23. Porter, L.E. & Prenzler, T. (2012). The Role of Research in Complaint Reduction. California Journal of Law Enforcement, 46(3): 7-12.
  24. Porter, L.E. & Prenzler, T. (2012). Police Oversight in the United Kingdom: The Balance of Independence and Collaboration. International Journal of Law Crime and justice, 40(3): 152-171.
  25. Caddick, A. & Porter, L.E. (2012). Exploring a model of Professionalism in multiple perpetrator violent Gun Crime in the UK. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 12(1): 61-82.
  26. Porter, L.E., Prenzler, T. & Fleming, J. (2012). Complaint reduction in the Tasmania Police. Policing & Society, 22(4): 426-447.
  27. Kebbell, K. & Porter, L.E. (2012). An Intelligence Assessment Framework for Identifying Individuals at Risk of Committing Acts of Violent Extremism Against the West. Security Journal, 25(3):212 – 228.
  28. Martin, K., Kebbell, M., Porter, L. and Townsley, M. (2011). The Paradox of Intuitive Analysis and the Implications for Professionalism. The Australian Institute of Professional Intelligence Officers, 19(1): 28-44.
  29. Porter, L. E., & Kebbell, M. R. (2010). Radicalization in Australia: Examining Australia's Convicted Terrorists. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 18(2): 212-231.
  30. Hauffe, S. & Porter, L.E. (2009). An interpersonal comparison of lone and group rape. Psychology, Crime & Law, 15(5): 469-91.
  31. Porter, L. E., & Warrender, C. (2009). A multivariate model of police deviance: examining the nature of corruption, crime and misconduct. Policing and Society, 19(1), 79 - 99. Reproduced in L Holmes (ed.) Police Corruption: Essential Readings. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
  32. Porter, L.E. (2008). Using archival data and multidimensional scaling to explore leadership: Examples from group crime. Issues in Forensic Psychology No. 8, 33-44. (Invited Special Issue).
  33. Woods, L. & Porter, L.E. (2008). Examining the relationship between sexual offenders and their victims: interpersonal differences between stranger versus non-stranger offences. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 14(1):61-75.
  34. Almond, L., Alison, L. & Porter, L. (2007).An evaluation and comparison of claims made in behavioural investigative advice reports compiled by the National Policing Improvements Agency in the United Kingdom. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 4(2):71-83. Reproduced in L. Alison & L. Rainbow (Eds.) Professionalizing Offender Profiling: Forensic and Investigative Psychology in Practice. Oxon: Routledge. 2011: 250-263.
  35. Porter, L.E. & Alison, L.J.  (2006). Leadership and hierarchies in criminal groups: Scaling degrees of leader behaviour in group robbery.  Legal and Criminological Psychology, 11(2): 245-265.
  36. Porter, L.E. & Alison, L.J.  (2006). Behavioural coherence in group robbery: A circumplex model of offender and victim interactions. Aggressive Behavior, 32(4):330-342.
  37. Porter, L.E. & Alison, L.J. (2006) Examining Group Rape: A descriptive analysis of offender and victim behaviour.  European Journal of Criminology. 3(3): 357-381.
  38. Porter, L. E. & Alison, L. J.  (2005). The Primacy of Decision-Action as an Influence Strategy of Violent Gang Leaders. Small Group Research, 36(2):188-207.
  39. Maruna, S., Porter, L., and Carvalho, I.(2004) The Liverpool Desistance Study and probation practice. Probation Journal, 51(3), 221-232.
  40. Porter, L.E. & Alison, L.J. (2004). Behavioural coherence in violent group activity: An interpersonal model of sexually violent gang behaviour. Aggressive Behavior, 30(6): 449-468
  41. Porter, L. E. & Alison, L. J. (2001) A Partially Ordered Scale of Influence in Violent Group behavior: An example from gang rape. Small Group Research, 32(4): 475-497.

Other publications and reports

  1. den Heyer, G. & Porter, L.E. (Eds.) (2018). Special issue: Changes in policing to improve service delivery. European Journal of Policing Studies, 5.
  2. Cassematis, P. & Porter, L. (2016). Queensland Police Service recruits’ perspectives on their training experiences part 2: Perceived preparedness of first year constables for general duties. GCI Briefing Paper. Brisbane: Griffith University.
  3. Morris, R. & Porter, L. (2016). Police recruits’ perceptions of unethical conduct. GCI Briefing Paper. Brisbane: Griffith University.
  4. Dorricott, C. & Porter, L. (2016). Police Recruit Attitudes Towards the Use of Force. GCI Briefing Paper. Brisbane: Griffith University.
  5. Raj, K. & Porter, L. (2016). A Longitudinal Study of Police Recruits: Attitudes to Minorities and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. GCI Briefing Paper. Brisbane: Griffith University.
  6. Cassematis, P. & Porter, L. (2015). Queensland Police Service recruits’ perspectives on their training experiences: What did recruits like most and least about their training? GCI Briefing Paper. Brisbane: Griffith University.
  7. Cassematis, P. & Porter, L. (2015). The Longitudinal Study of Police Use of Force: Recruit Backgrounds. GCI Briefing Paper. Brisbane: Griffith University.
  8. Porter, L.E., Webb, S, Prenzler, T. & Gill, M. (2015). The Role of Leadership in Promoting Ethical Police Behaviour. Coventry: College of Policing. http://whatworks.college.police.uk/Research/Documents/150317_Ethical_leadership_FINAL_REPORT.pdf
  9. Porter, L.E. & Cawthray, T. (2013). A review of the draft Code of Ethics for Police. Submission to the College of Policing (UK).
  10. Prenzler, T. & Porter, L.E. (2013). Response to Tasmania Police Graduated Management Model Consultation Paper. Report for the Tasmanian Integrity Commission. Brisbane: ARC Centre of Excellence in Policing and Security.
  11. Porter, L.E. (2013). Book Review: Police Corruption: Deviance, Accountability and Reform in Policing. Cullompton: Willan. Police Practice and Research. An International Journal.
  12. Alpert, G., Rojek, J. & Porter, L.E. (2012). Measuring the impact of organizational culture and climate on police officers’ decisions and behaviour. CEPS Working Paper, 1. http://www.ceps.edu.au/CMS/Uploads/file/GAlpert_JRojek_LPorter_issue1.pdf
  13. Porter, L.E. & Prenzler, T. (2011). A National Stocktake of Integrity Strategies (Main report). Brisbane: ARC Centre of Excellence in Policing and Security. pp253.
  14. Porter, L.E., Prenzler, T. & Fleming, J. (2010). Complaint reduction in the Tasmania Police. Report prepared for the Tasmania Police. Brisbane: ARC Centre of Excellence in Policing and Security. pp49.
  15. Porter, L.E. (2005). Book Review: Matthews, R. (2002). Armed Robbery. Devon: Willan. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 2(3): 215-217.
  16. Porter, L.E., Canter, D.V. & Maruna, S. (2000) Going Straight: transitions away from Juvenile Delinquency and Drug Misuse. Unpublished report from The Centre for Investigative Psychology at The University of Liverpool. Prepared for Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
  17. Canter, D.V, Porter, L.E, Maruna, S. & Youngs, D.E. (1998) Changing The Script: Results and Proposals Derived from a Study of Employment, Education and Training Provision for Drugs Mis-users on Merseyside. Unpublished report from The Centre for Investigative Psychology at The University of Liverpool. Prepared for Safer Merseyside Partnership and Merseyside Safer Cities.

Awarded external competitive funding

2013-2014$75,000The Role of Leadership in Promoting Ethical Police Behaviour.College of Policing (UK). (Prenzler, Porter, Gill, Webb).

2007£850 A Multivariate model of police deviance: examining the nature of corruption, crime and misconduct.  Paper presented to the Third International Congress of Psychology and Law, Adelaide, July 2007. British Academy Overseas Conference Grant. (Porter).

2005-2007£42,000 Deconstructing Offender Profiles. The Leverhulme Trust (UK). (Alison, Smith & Porter).

2000-2003A model of interpersonal complementarity in interactions in group rape and group robbery: action oriented leadership and behavioural contagion. Economic and Social Research Council (UK) PhD Scholarship. (Porter).

Awarded internal competitive funding

2019$80,000 Understanding and enhancing police officers’ accounts of stressful events. Queensland Police Service & Griffith University Near-miss Support for Collaborative External Schemes (Porter, L, Ready, J, Alpert, G., Powell, M. & Garry, M.).

2018$8406 Understanding police officers’ experiences of critical incident interviews: Factors influencing account-giving. Griffith Criminology Institute Strategic Development Funding (Porter, L., Ready, J. & Powell, M.)

2015$5,000 The Causes and Correlates of Wrongful Conviction in Australia.Griffith University CCJ Strategic development funding. (Dioso-Villa, R. & Porter, L.).

2014$8,000 Building police legitimacy among youth using procedural justice. Griffith University AEL Strategic Research Grant (Murphy, Bond, Porter, Bates, Fildes, Allen).

2013-2014$10,000  ‘Displays of understanding’ by police recruits: an analysis of feedback sessions. Griffith University AEL Collaborative Research Grant. (Porter, Haugh, Fildes, Mitchell).

2013$3,050 Sequencing behaviour in police-citizen interactions. Griffith University, International research Travel Fellowship. (Porter)

2009$2,000 Exploring the concept of “Criminal Professionalism” in Terrorism: A Case Study of the 2008 Mumbai Attacks. Faculty of Arts, Honours Student Summer Scholarship. (Porter & King).

2008-2010$15,000 Indigenous Deaths in Police Custody: Modelling Towards Prevention. Griffith University New Researcher Grant (Porter).

2008-2011A national evaluation of Police misconduct behaviour and integrity strategies in Australia: creating a unified model for strategic response and prevention. Griffith University Research Fellowship. (Porter).

2005-2006£2,433 Effective influence over young people’s behaviour: Personality, leadership and power. University of Liverpool (UK) Research Development Fund. (Porter).


2017 Understanding Police Use of Force Encounters in Context: What Encounters Look Like, Circumstances when Officers get Injured, and the Decision Factors and Processes Involved, Kelly Hine (Co-principal with N Westera)

2017 What are the barriers preventing the police from using procedural justice when interacting with the public?, Alistair Fildes (Co-principal with T Murphy)

2015 Invisible Women: Understanding Female Involvement in Contemporary Political and Revolutionary Conflict, Lauren Vogel, (Associate with M Kebbell)


Full Time

Community drivers of police use of force, Molly McCarthy (Co-principal with M Townsley)

Use of force in international police deployment missions, T Cawthray (Co-principal with T Prenzler)

Introducing restrictive police pursuit policies, Peter Hosking (Co-principal with J Ransley)

Engaging Muslims in the fight against terrorism: A procedural justice policing perspective, Michael Pass (with T Murphy & N Madon). Commencing 2019

Wrongful Convictions: Vulnerable Populations and Guilty Pleas, Caitlin Nash (Co-principal with R. Dioso-Villa). Commencing 2019

Part Time

Understanding victim behaviour in violent crime, Georgina Fuller (CO-principal with B Leclerc).

Women in Police, Corey Heldon (Co-principal with T Prenzler)

Home Invasion Robbery, Katherine Russell (Associate with M Townsley & B Leclerc)